Category: Antiprotozoal— antirheumatic (disease-modifying)— lupus erythematosus suppressant— antihypercalcemic— polymorphous light eruption suppressant— porphyria cutanea tarda suppressant— Indications Note: Bracketed information in the Indications section refers to uses that are not included in U. Also has been found to be taken up into the acidic food vacuoles of the parasite in the erythrocyte. falciparum and the other 3 malarial species; however, chloroquine-resistant P. Unaccepted Hydroxychloroquine does not prevent relapses in patients with P. ovale malaria since it is not effective against exo-erythrocytic forms of the parasite. Hydroxychloroquine for crest syndrome Plaquenil for alopecia areata The primary action of hydroxychloroquine is inhibition of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors TLRs. The TLR family is usually divided into two groups according to the localization of the receptors and the ligands recognized by them. Objectives Hydroxychloroquine HCQ has been used for decades to treat patients with rheumatic diseases, for example, systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis or the antiphospholipid syndrome APS. Hydroxychloroquine is a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug DMARD approved for adults with RA. It is often given in combination with methotrexate and sulfasalazine a treatment known as triple therapy, to help slow RA disease progression for patients who do not get relief from methotrexate therapy alone. [ It may be used in addition to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.] Lupus erythematosus, discoid (treatment) or Lupus erythematosus, systemic (treatment)—Hydroxychloroquine is indicated as a suppressant for chronic discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus . falciparum , originally seen only in Southeast Asia and South America, are now documented in all malarious areas except Central America west of the Canal Zone, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. Chloroquine is still the drug of choice for the treatment of susceptible strains of P. Hydroxychloroquine mechanism of action arthritis Mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine as an antirheumatic., Hydroxychloroquine inhibits proinflammatory signalling. Plaquenil and arava5 year plaquenil protocolPlaquenil mastocytosis Hydroxychloroquine HCQ, a drug which has been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of SLE, has long been considered a relatively minor component in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE. However, increasing evidence shows that HCQ is an important medication for this disease 1. Hydroxychloroquine A multifaceted treatment in lupus - EM.. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil -. Review of Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic disease. Despite widespread clinical use of antimalarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis RA, systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and other. Methotrexate Moderate Hydroxychloroquine may reduce the renal clearance of methotrexate; the exact mechanism of this interaction is unknown. The mean AUC of methotrexate was increased 52% and the mean Cmax was reduced 17% when a single dose of methotrexate was given with a dose of hydroxychloroquine 200 mg oral. The major proposed mechanisms of action of antimalarials on the immune system include 1 interference with lysosomal acidification and inhibition of proteolysis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation 9, 10; 2 decreasing macrophage-mediated cytokine production, especially interleukin IL-1 and IL-6 ; 3 inhibition of phospholipase A2 and thereby antagonizing the effects of prostaglandins 12, 13; 4 absorption and blocking of UV light cutaneous reactions ; 5 binding.