Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female mosquito. Occasionally, transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, nosocomially, or from mother to fetus. Is plaquenil used to treat vasculitis Plaquenil fertility Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria was first identified in 1989 among Australians living in or traveling to Papua New Guinea. P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, Ethiopia, and Madagascar. Isolated reports have suggested chloroquine-resistance P. vivax in other countries and regions, but further evaluation is needed. Quinine remains an important and effective treatment for malaria today, despite sporadic observations of quinine resistance. 1 Chloroquine. Research by German scientists to discover a substitute for quinine led to the synthesis in 1934 of Resochin chloroquine and Sontochin 3-methyl-chloroquine. ANSWER Chloroquine-resistant malaria has been observed in India and so the first line drug of choice should be an artemisinin-derivative in combination with another drug this group of medications are more generally known as "artemisinin-based combination therapies" or ACTs. Travelers going to malaria-endemic countries are at risk for contracting the disease, and almost all of the approximately 1,700 cases per year of malaria in the United States are imported. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated 216 million infections and 445,000 deaths in 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2017. Chloroquine resistant malaria Chloroquine Resistant Malaria –, History of antimalarials Medicines for Malaria Venture Chloroquine resistant malaria meaningHydroxychloroquine less common side effectsHydroxychloroquine ingredientsHydroxy chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Coronavirus update India count stands at 167, death toll at 4 Coronavirus cure All you need to know about anti-malaria.. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria –. Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria Chloroquine phosphate tablets are not effective against chloroquine-or hydroxychloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium species see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Microbiology. Chloroquine resistance is widespread in P. falciparum and is reported in P. vivax. Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Occasionally it is used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. Chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine sulfate Plaquenil can be used for prevention of malaria only in destinations where chloroquine resistance is not present see Chapter 2, Yellow Fever Vaccine & Malaria Prophylaxis Information, by Country. Prophylaxis should begin 1–2 weeks before travel to malarious areas.